Various programs (including education, audits and incentive schemes) to improve the efficiency of water use by both business and residential customers.
Status In all portfolios
Reducing losses from the water distribution system by active leak detection programs and pressure management.
Simple, common sense actions that help conserve water. These are already in place in Sydney and the Central Coast.
Applying restrictions when storage levels fall below a defined level. These generally focus on reducing outdoor water use.
A way of encouraging further water conservation (including indoor uses) by setting a daily use target that the community is encouraged to achieve when drought restrictions apply.
The capture of stormwater as a substitute for non-drinking water purposes such as irrigation of golf courses, parks and playing fields.
Status Included in Portfolio 3
Rainwater harvested from roof areas of dwellings and other buildings and stored in privately owned tanks on site for non-drinking water uses such as garden watering and toilet flushing.
Involves separating and reusing the wastewater generated from washing machines, showers, baths and basins for uses such as outdoor watering.
Status Not in first LHWP
‘Decentralised systems’ involve the collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater at or near the point of generation. ‘Sewer mining’ is the process of tapping into a sewer to extract sewage, which is then treated and used as recycled water. In both cases, the recycled water could be used for non-drinking water purposes such as irrigating golf courses and playing fields or industrial applications.
Involves supplying recycled water through a separate pipe network for uses such as toilet flushing, outdoor watering and industrial applications.
Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme will be commissioned by December 2014 and produce nine million litres of recycled water a day suitable for industrial use.
An option is to supply additional industrial customers with recycled water for uses such as dust suppression, cooling water and washdown, thus reducing the demand for drinking water.
Status The base case includes 9 ML per day from 2015
The potential to purchase water from Lostock Dam and transfer it to the lower Hunter is under investigation, along with potential enhancements to the system. The volume of water available from this dam is currently not used to its full capacity.
Status Included in Portfolio 5 and 6
There is an existing pipeline linking the Central Coast and lower Hunter water supply networks, allowing drinking water to be transferred between the two regions. The feasibility of enhancing the existing scheme to provide greater water security for both regions is being investigated.
Status In Portfolio 2, 3 and 4
A potential ‘emergency measure’ could involve additional bores to access deeper water from the existing Tomago groundwater source.
Status Not in LHWP
A potential new ‘Hunter alluvial’ groundwater source is under investigation, near the confluence of the Paterson and Hunter Rivers.
Status Under investigation
The feasibility of accessing surplus water that flows into coal mines near Lake Macquarie is at an early stage of investigation.
Small portable desalination units could be used as a temporary source during a drought. Potential sites are subject to investigation.
Status Included in Portfolio 4
A larger scale desalination plant could be constructed in a drought, but typically involves a long lead time for investigations, approvals, design and construction. The lead time could be reduced by undertaking ‘readiness activities’ in the shorter term, but any decision to construct a plant would not be triggered until a drought occurred.